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The shot below represents a mole’s eye view of two vertical slices of the green with drain configuration drawn in. The gravel layer at one foot deep appears uniform and normal.

Hydrology of a Green

These screen shots show some of the different ways to view and analyze a drainage system in 3-D on a typical golf course green. The survey area depicted below was 122 feet by 57 feet and covered only a part of the green. Survey depth is approximately 6 feet. Each view shows a different way of viewing and examining the data:

3-D Cube Showing Delineation of Fairway Greens

The example below shows the survey in a 3-D cube. The depth has been expanded to show more detail. The outline of the green itself is clearly shown. In this example, the data is shown in grayscale; however, the color table may be changed to improve visualization of the pertinent features.

Another view of the same green with a change in the color table to blue-green. The horizontal slice throughout is about one foot deep. This view shows excess water in blue. The water is clearly backing up into the green around the exit drain pipe, which does not extend sufficiently beyond the green to drain efficiently.

3D GPR Survey Examples

Below is the complete screen capture showing both 2-D and 3-D views.

3-D view, which can be rotated, expanded and 'sliced' to obtain a good understanding of the underground geology. Here the main drain pipe and the herringbone pattern of trenches feeding it are shown. A smile drain can be seen just off the green. Depth slice is about 16 inches deep. Bright white spot indicates excess water.

The view below shows additional vertical slices to provide more detailed analysis of below green features.

In this shot, the main drain line and trenches have been drawn in. This horizontal slice depth is deeper – below two feet. The light blue indicates some water retention throughout the green, but at this depth it is not significant.

This step cut-away view of the same green shows two trenches. The depth slice here is about 2 feet deep.